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History of management:

what is management Management has been practiced for a long time. Planning, organizing, leading and controlling activities have been existed for thousand years. Let's look at the below example:

The Egyptian Pyramid's and The Great Wall of China are proof of management existence. It took more than 0.1 million workers, some twenty years to contract a single pyramid. Who told each worker what to do? Who ensured that there would be enough stones at the site to keep workers busy? The answer is mangers. Someone had to plan what has to be done, organize people and materials to do it, make sure those workers gets the work done, and impose some controls to ensure that everything has been done as planned.

Definition of management:

According to Fredmund Malik "Management is the transformation of resources into utility. Management included as one of the factors of production - along with machines, materials and money"

According to Harold Koontz "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. Harold Koontz provided this definition elaborately in his book of management name is "The Management Theory Jungle"


According to Henri Fayol "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.

Henri Fayol provided this definition in his famous and world wide accepted book name is "Industrial and General Administration"

According to study notes Management is a process consisting of planning, organizing, staffing and controlling performed to accomplish objectives with use of human beings and other resources.

Characteristics of management: 

There are five most important characteristics management. The characteristics of management are described below

  • Management is universal: Management is universal in nature. It can be found everywhere on the planet wherever there is a human activity. The basic principle of management can be applied anywhere whether its a business or non business organization. For example, we are born in an organization that is family, we live in an organization that is society and we work in an organization that is business organization. Everywhere basic principles of management can be applied.
  • Management is a science as well as art: Management is both a science and an art. It is considered as science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contain universal truth. For example, four basic functions of management, Henri Fayol's fourteen principles. It is an art because a manager have to be creative, flexible and use his abilities to motivate and manage subordinates.
  • Management is a profession: Profession can be defined as such type of work for which specialized skills and training are essential and use of these skills efficiently not for self satisfaction, but for larger social interest and the success of these skills cannot be measured in monetary terms.
    From above definition we can see that management meet several essential to be a profession such as specialized skills and training and use of these skills efficiently not for self satisfaction, but for larger social interest. So we can say that management is a profession, but its not a profession like the profession of doctors, lawyers etc.
  • Management is a continuous process:Management is a continuous process. It's include identifying and solving problems. This process can be classified into two types such as managerial process and social process. Managerial process is performed by the managers. Managerial process involve planning, organizing, staffing and controlling. And in social process managers solve problems with help and cooperation of subordinates.
  • Management is intangible: Management is intangible. It cannot be seen. Its presence and result can be felt as in the form of organization goals, objectives and employees satisfaction.
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What is management? history, meaning, definition and characteristics of management
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